Los instrumentos musicales, el clave

El clave es un instrumento de cuerda punteada que se caracteriza por tener todas las cuerdas de distinta longitud, mediante las cuales se consiguen las diferentes notas musicales, sin necesidad de trastes como en la guitarra, donde con una cuerda se pueden hacer varias notas dependiendo de la longitud que le demos nosotros al pulsar la cuerda en un traste determinado.  En el clave es al contrario, ya que a cada nota se le adjudica una cuerda de longitud y grosor determinado.

Todos los claves poseen caja de resonancia y son excitados a través de la pulsación, en este caso de un teclado. El sistema mecánico de este instrumento no es muy complejo, una tecla levanta un pequeño martillo y éste entra en contacto mediante un plectro punteando la cuerda, produciendo el mismo efecto que en el salterio o la cítara. Al bajar el martillo un mecanismo con fieltro baja hasta tocar la cuerda y apaga el sonido.

A este instrumento también se le conoce como clavecín, clavicémbalo y cembalo y data de la Edad Media (s. XIV) y alcanza su edad de oro en el Barroco de la mano de compositores como J. S. Bach, Scarlatti, Purcell, Frescobaldi, Händel, Couperin, Froberger o Telemann. Se utilizaba a solo o en conjunto para concertos grossos y otras obras distintas. Quedará obsoleto en el siglo XVIII ante el nacimiento de un instrumento que revolucionaría todo el mundo de la música, el piano. Algunas obras para clave, en su última etapa, se adaptan al piano, otras se componen para ser interpretadas por uno o por otro indistintamente, y deja de utilizarse hasta la primera mitad del s. XX que se retoma la composición para clave. Actualmente se sigue componiendo para él pero no con la intensidad de la edad de oro del clave. Algunas obras como El clave bien temperado o Variaciones Goldberg , ambas de Bach, son un ejemplo del esplendor de este instrumento tan bello, donde se puede apreciar la virtuosidad del músico con este instrumento tan complejo de tocar.



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